European Journal of Chemistry

Chitosan as an eco-friendly heterogeneous catalyst for Michael type addition reactions. A simple and efficient route to pyridones and phthalazines

Main Article Content

Khaled Khalil
Hamad Al-Matar
Mohamed Elnagdi


Depending on their nature, nitrile activated methylene compounds add readily to β-enaminones in presence of chitosan to yield dienamides, pyridones or pyridine thiones. The dienamides, formed in this manner, can be readily converted to pyridones by stirring in refluxing acetic acid. Reaction of pyridazinones with a mixture containing benzaldehyde, malononitrile and chitosan affords phthalazines that are also produced by reaction of pyridazinone with benzylidene-malononitrile.


icon graph This Abstract was viewed 3851 times | icon graph Article PDF downloaded 1123 times

How to Cite
Khalil, K.; Al-Matar, H.; Elnagdi, M. Chitosan As an Eco-Friendly Heterogeneous Catalyst for Michael Type Addition Reactions. A Simple and Efficient Route to Pyridones and Phthalazines. Eur. J. Chem. 2010, 1, 252-258.

Article Details

Crossref - Scopus - Google - European PMC

[1]. Niola, F.; Basora, N.; Chornet, E.; Vidal, P. F. Carbohyd. Res.1993, 238, 1-9.

[2]. Bader, H. J.; Birkholz, E. Praxis der Naturwissenschaften,Chemie1996, 45(6), 24-30.

[3]. Rege, P. R.; Block, L. H. Carbohyd. Res.1999, 321, 235-245.

[4]. Gomha, S. M.; Riyadh, S. M. Arkivoc2009, 11, 58-68.

[5]. Al-Matar, H. M.; Khalil, K. D.; Meier, H.; Kolshorn, H.; Elnagdi, M. H. Arkivoc 2008, 16, 288-301.

[6]. Alnajjar, A.; Abdelkhalik, M. M.; Al-Enezi, A.; Elnagdi, M. H. Molecules2009, 14(1), 68-77.

[7]. Al-Saleh, B.; El-Apasery, M. A.; Abdel-Aziz, R. S.; Elnagdi, M. H. J. Heterocyclic Chem.2005, 42(4), 563-566.

[8]. Schmidt, U.; Kubitzek, H. Chemische Berichte1960, 93,1559-65.

[9]. Boatman, S.; Harris, T. M.; Hauser, C. R. J. Org. Chem.1965, 30(11), 3593-7.

[10]. Ghozlan, S. A. S.; Abdelhamid, I. A.; Elnagdi, M. H. Arkivoc2006, 13, 147-157.

[11]. Al-Mousawi, S. M.; Moustafa, M. S.; Abdelkhalik, M. M.; Elnagdi, M. H. Arkivoc2009, 11, 1-10.

[12]. Al-Omran, F.; Al-Awadi, N.; Abdelkhalik, M. M.; Kaul, K.; Elkhair, A. A.; Elnagdi, M. H. J. Chem. Res. (S) 1997, 84, 601-613.

[13]. Abdelrazek, F. M.; Elsayed, A. N. J. Heterocyclic Chem. 2009, 46, 949-953.

[14]. Gorobets, N. Y.; Sedash, Y. V.; Shishkina, S. V.; Shishkin, O. V.; Yermolayev, S. A.; Desenko, S. M. Arkivoc2009, 13, 23-30.

[15]. Abdelrazek, F. M.; Michael, F. A. J. Heterocyclic Chem. 2006, 43(1), 7-10.

[16]. Al-Mousawi, S.; Moustafa, M. S.; Elnagdi, M. H. Arkivoc2008, 10, 17-25.

[17]. Al-Saleh, B.; Hilmy, Noha M.; El-Apasery, M. A.; Elnagdi, M. H. J. Heterocyclic Chem.2006, 43(6), 1575-1581.

[18]. Mogilaiah, K.; Rani, J. Uma. Indian J. Heterocycl. Chem.2003, 13(2), 169-170.

[19]. Xu, Da-Zh.; Liu,Y.; Shi S.; Wang, Y.GreenChem.2010, 12, 514-517.

Supporting Agencies

Kuwait University - Research Adminstration
Most read articles by the same author(s)

Dimensions - Altmetric - scite_ - PlumX

Downloads and views


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...
License Terms

License Terms


Copyright © 2024 by Authors. This work is published and licensed by Atlanta Publishing House LLC, Atlanta, GA, USA. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial (CC BY NC) (International, v4.0) License ( By accessing the work, you hereby accept the Terms. This is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the CC BY NC License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited without any further permission from Atlanta Publishing House LLC (European Journal of Chemistry). No use, distribution, or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Permissions for commercial use of this work beyond the scope of the License ( are administered by Atlanta Publishing House LLC (European Journal of Chemistry).