European Journal of Chemistry

Heavy metal concentrations in drinking water in the region north-east of Jhunjhunu, Rajasthan, India

Crossmark


Main Article Content

Anil Kumar

Abstract

Groundwater is contaminated by undesirable elements that are introduced directly or indirectly into a natural water reservoir supplied by human activity, thus changing its physico-chemical properties. The north-east of Jhunjhunu in Rajasthan state of India was chosen as the study area due to the lack of research evidence in the past. The heavy metal content of a total of 42 water samples was analysed using an atomic absorption spectrometer. The copper and iron content in the groundwater of the study area is revealing a spatial distribution range of 1.75 to 4.01 mg/L for copper and 0.44 to 1.22 mg/L for iron. The obtained result was compared with Buero of Indian Standard (10500:2012), Indian Council of Medical Research, and World Health Organisation. There are iron and copper mining facilities in the studied area. Therefore, the concentration of both minerals was observed in the groundwater of all sampling stations. The iron and copper content are much higher in groundwater than the permissible limit of Buero of Indian Standard and World Health Organisation. The manganese content was not detected at all sampling sites. Both iron and copper elements are trace elements, and their higher concentration has proven to be a major problem and there are many health risks associated with it. These observed concentrations indicate a hazardous risk to human health. The official authorities should take the necessary measures in this regard.


icon graph This Abstract was viewed 368 times | icon graph Article PDF downloaded 154 times

How to Cite
(1)
Kumar, A. Heavy Metal Concentrations in Drinking Water in the Region North-East of Jhunjhunu, Rajasthan, India. Eur. J. Chem. 2023, 14, 348-352.

Article Details

Share
Crossref - Scopus - Google - European PMC
References

[1]. Mahdi, A. J.; Ewadh, H. M.; Satee, S.; Salman, J. M.; Brahmaji Rao, P. Comprehensive study of heavy metal pollution in surface water of Guntur region of Andra Pradesh. IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci. 2022, 1088, 012016.
https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/1088/1/012016

[2]. Parihar, K.; Sankhla, M. S.; Kumar, R.; Singh, A. Assessment of Copper and Iron concentration in water of Yamuna river, Delhi, India. Lett. Appl. Nanobioscience 2020, 10, 2251-2257.
https://doi.org/10.33263/LIANBS102.22512257

[3]. Viswanathan, G.; Jaswanth, A.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Siva Ilango, S.; Aditya, G. Determining the optimal fluoride concentration in drinking water for fluoride endemic regions in South India. Sci. Total Environ. 2009, 407, 5298-5307.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.06.028

[4]. Galitskaya, I. V.; Mohan, K. R.; Krishna, A. K.; Batrak, G. I.; Eremina, O. N.; Putilina, V. S.; Yuganova, T. I. Assessment of soil and groundwater contamination by heavy metals and metalloids in Russian and Indian megacities. Procedia Earth Planet. Sci. 2017, 17, 674-677.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeps.2016.12.180

[5]. Sridhar, S. G. D.; Sakthivel, A. M.; Sangunathan, U.; Balasubramanian, M.; Jenefer, S.; Mohamed Rafik, M.; Kanagaraj, G. Heavy metal concentration in groundwater from Besant Nagar to Sathankuppam, South Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Appl. Water Sci. 2017, 7, 4651-4662.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s13201-017-0628-z

[6]. Sarkar, S. C.; Dasgupta, S. Geologic setting, genesis and transformation of sulfide deposits in the northern part of Khetri copper belt, Rajasthan, India - an outline. Miner. Deposita 1980, 15, 117-137.
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00206508

[7]. Hussain, I.; Hussain, J.; Arif, M.; Vadiya, V. Impact of copper mines and smelter on groundwater quality (Case Study: Rajasthan State in India). Pollution 2015, 1(2), 151-163.

[8]. Buero of Indian Standard (BIS) (10500:2012). https://www.bis.gov.in, http://cgwb.gov.in/documents/wq-standards.pdf (accessed May 26, 2023).

[9]. Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR). Manual of Standards of Quality for Drinking Water Supplies, (1975). https://www.icmr.gov.in, (accessed May 26, 2023).

[10]. WHO (2004) Copper in drinking-water, background document for preparation of WHO Guideline for drinking water quality. Geneva. World Health Organization. (WHO/SDE/WSH/03.04/88)

[11]. WHO (2004) Iron in drinking-water, background document for preparation of WHO Guideline for drinking water quality. Geneva. World Health Organization. (WHO/SDE/WSH/03.04/88)

[12]. Welz, B.; Sperling, M. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry; Welz, B.; Sperling, M., Eds.; 3rd ed.; Wiley-VCH Verlag: Weinheim, Germany, 1998.
https://doi.org/10.1002/9783527611690

[13]. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry: Volume: Theory, Design and Applications; Haswell, S. J., Ed.; Elsevier Science: London, England, 1991.

[14]. Nazir, R.; Khan, M.; Masab, M.; Rehman, H. U. R.; Rauf, N. U. R.; Shahab, S.; Ameer, N.; Sajed, M.; Ullah, M.; Rafeeq, M.; Shaheen, Z. Accumulation of Heavy Metals (Ni, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn, Fe) in the soil, water and plants and analysis of physico-chemical parameters of soil and water Collected from Tanda Dam kohat. J. Pharm. Sci. Res. 7 (3), 89-97 https://www.jpsr.pharmainfo.in/Documents/Volumes/vol7issue03/jpsr07031501.pdf.

[15]. Agrios, G. N. Plant Pathology; 5th ed.; Academic Press: San Diego, CA, 2005.

[16]. Extractive Metallurgy of Copper; 5th ed.; Elsevier/The Lancet: London, England, 2011.

[17]. Ullmann, F. Ullmann's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry: Chlorophenols to copper compounds v. A7; Arpe, H. J.; Biekert, E.; Davis, H. T.; Gerhartz, W.; Gerrens, H.; Keim, W.; McGuire, J. L.; Mitsutani, A.; Pilat, H.; Reece, C.; Simmons, H. E.; Weise, E.; Wirtz, R.; Wüthrich, H. R., Eds.; 5th ed.; Wiley-VCH Verlag: Weinheim, Germany, 1986.

[18]. Suttle, N. Mineral nutrition of livestock; 5th ed.; CABI Publishing: Wallingford, England, 2022.
https://doi.org/10.1079/9781789240924.0000

[19]. Landner, L.; Lindestrom, L. Copper in society and in the environment. (SCDA S-721 88); Vasteras, Swedish Environmental Research Group (MFG): Swedish, 1999.

[20]. Shorrocks, V.; Alloway, B. Copper in plant, animal and human nutrition; Deutsches Kupfer-Institut, 1986.

[21]. Jaishankar, M.; Tseten, T.; Anbalagan, N.; Mathew, B. B.; Beeregowda, K. N. Toxicity, mechanism and health effects of some heavy metals. Interdiscip. Toxicol. 2014, 7, 60-72.
https://doi.org/10.2478/intox-2014-0009

[22]. Agarwal, S. K.; Tiwari, S. C.; Dash, S. C. Spectrum of poisoning requiring haemodialysis in a tertiary care hospital in India. Int. J. Artif. Organs 1993, 16, 20-22.
https://doi.org/10.1177/039139889301600105

[23]. Ronov, A. B.; Yaroshevsky, A. A. Chemical composition of the earth's crust. In The Earth's Crust and Upper Mantle; American Geophysical Union: Washington, D. C., 2013; pp. 37-57.
https://doi.org/10.1029/GM013p0037

[24]. Kumar, P. J. S.; Kokkat, A.; Kurian, P. K.; James, E. J. Nutrient chemistry and seasonal variation in the groundwater quality of a Riverine Island on the west coast of Kerala, India. Sustain. Water Resour. Manag. 2020, 6, 3.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s40899-020-00358-y

[25]. Zhu, K.; Hopwood, M. J.; Groenenberg, J. E.; Engel, A.; Achterberg, E. P.; Gledhill, M. Influence of pH and dissolved organic matter on iron speciation and apparent iron solubility in the Peruvian shelf and slope region. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2021, 55, 9372-9383.
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c02477

Supporting Agencies

Most read articles by the same author(s)
TrendMD

Dimensions - Altmetric - scite_ - PlumX

Downloads and views

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...
License Terms

License Terms

by-nc

Copyright © 2024 by Authors. This work is published and licensed by Atlanta Publishing House LLC, Atlanta, GA, USA. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.eurjchem.com/index.php/eurjchem/terms and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial (CC BY NC) (International, v4.0) License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0). By accessing the work, you hereby accept the Terms. This is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the CC BY NC License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited without any further permission from Atlanta Publishing House LLC (European Journal of Chemistry). No use, distribution, or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Permissions for commercial use of this work beyond the scope of the License (https://www.eurjchem.com/index.php/eurjchem/terms) are administered by Atlanta Publishing House LLC (European Journal of Chemistry).