European Journal of Chemistry

Geochemical survey of the Nyamyumba and Bugarama hot springs in the western province of Rwanda


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Anzelim Eliwa Sunguti
Theoneste Muhizi
Joshua Kiprotich Kibet
Thomas Karanja Kinyanjui


The focus of the current study was to investigate the presence of selected trace metals (Pb, Cd, Mn, Ni, and Cu) and to determine the major cation and anion levels in Nyamyumba and Bugarama hot springs in the Western Province of Rwanda. The trace metals were determined using micro plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The mean Cu concentrations in Nyamyumba and Bugarama were found to be 0.1 mg/L and were within the permissible limits of the World Health Organization (WHO) for potable water. Similarly, Mn concentrations were within acceptable WHO limits with mean concentrations being 0.04±0.02 and 0.11±0.03 mg/L in Nyamyumba and Bugarama, respectively. The lead concentration was found to be above the WHO limits with mean results of 0.01±0.001 and 0.013±0.01 mg/L in Nyamyumba and Bugarama, respectively. The mean concentration of cadmium was 0.01 mg/L in both sampling sites, which is observed to be above the allowed WHO limit. Nickel, on the other hand, was found to be below the detection limit. The fluoride concentration was determined using the SPADNS Ultra Violet Spectroscopic (UV-VIS) method and its mean levels were found to be 1.07±0.05 and 0.85±0.07 mg/L in Nyamyumba and Bugarama, correspondingly, which is within the acceptable limit of the WHO. Due to the potential pollution trends identified in this study, it is recommended that biosorption remediation techniques be applied for potable and therapeutic water usage to reduce the levels of Pb and Cd, which can have serious etiological risks to both flora and fauna due to possible trace metal bioaccumulation.

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Sunguti, A. E.; Muhizi, T.; Kibet, J. K.; Kinyanjui, T. K. Geochemical Survey of the Nyamyumba and Bugarama Hot Springs in the Western Province of Rwanda. Eur. J. Chem. 2024, 15, 31-38.

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College of Science and Technology, University of Rwanda, P.O Box 3900, Kigali, Rwanda., Egerton University, P.O Box 536-20115, Egerton, Kenya
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