European Journal of Chemistry

Investigation of the antioxidant properties of Persea americana seed flour altered by the fermentation process with Lactobacillus plantarum


Main Article Content

Polegodage Dilushi Sureka Ruwan Kumari
Ranjani Amarakoon
Madushan Dhammika Gunarathna


This study aims to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus plantarum fermentation on the antioxidant potential of Persea americana seed flour. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of avocado seed flour after fermentation for 24, 48, and 72 h was compared with the unfermented avocado seed flour using the measurement of free radical scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Additionally, the change in pH value was measured to confirm the continuous fermentation process within the desired period. The results for the DPPH assay for unfermented, 24, 48, and 72 h fermented avocado seed flour were 61.5±0.71, 51.18±0.10, 46.00±0.21, 43.73±0.21 µg/mL, respectively, which indicated a significant increase (p < 0.05) of IC50 values of avocado seed flour with the fermentation. Furthermore, with the fermentation period, there was a significant decrease in the pH value for the 72-hour fermented sample (4.15±0.03) compared to the unfermented sample (6.81±0.04). These results supported avocado seed as an important by-product source for the further development of health-promoting products, by confirming the increased antioxidant capacity of avocado seed flour after fermentation.

icon graph This Abstract was viewed 218 times | icon graph Article PDF downloaded 82 times

How to Cite
Kumari, P. D. S. R.; Amarakoon, R.; Gunarathna, M. D. Investigation of the Antioxidant Properties of Persea Americana Seed Flour Altered by the Fermentation Process With Lactobacillus Plantarum. Eur. J. Chem. 2024, 15, 74-78.

Article Details

Crossref - Scopus - Google - European PMC

[1]. Sagar, N. A.; Pareek, S.; Sharma, S.; Yahia, E. M.; Lobo, M. G. Fruit and vegetable waste: Bioactive compounds, their extraction, and possible utilization. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. 2018, 17, 512-531.

[2]. Halliwell, B. Antioxidants and human disease: A general introduction. Nutr. Rev. 2009, 55, S44-S49.

[3]. Ramarathnam, N.; Osawa, T.; Ochi, H.; Kawakishi, S. The contribution of plant food antioxidants to human health. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 1995, 6, 75-82.

[4]. Sirivibulkovit, K.; Nouanthavong, S.; Sameenoi, Y. Paper-based DPPH assay for antioxidant activity analysis. Anal. Sci. 2018, 34, 795-800.

[5]. Garcia, E. J.; Oldoni, T. L. C.; Alencar, S. M. de; Reis, A.; Loguercio, A. D.; Grande, R. H. M. Antioxidant activity by DPPH assay of potential solutions to be applied on bleached teeth. Braz. Dent. J. 2012, 23, 22-27.

[6]. Cheng, Z.; Moore, J.; Yu, L. (lucy) High-throughput relative DPPH radical scavenging capacity assay. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2006, 54, 7429-7436.

[7]. Wei, A.; Shibamoto, T. Antioxidant/lipoxygenase inhibitory activities and chemical compositions of selected essential oils. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2010, 58, 7218-7225.

[8]. Duarte, P. F.; Chaves, M. A.; Borges, C. D.; Mendonça, C. R. B. Avocado: characteristics, health benefits and uses. Cienc. Rural 2016, 46, 747-754.

[9]. Ortiz, M. A.; Dorantes, A. L.; Gallndez, M. J.; Cardenas, S. E. Effect of a novel oil extraction method on avocado (Persea americana mill) pulp microstructure. Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. 2004, 59, 11-14.

[10]. Lu, Q.-Y.; Arteaga, J. R.; Zhang, Q.; Huerta, S.; Go, V. L. W.; Heber, D. Inhibition of prostate cancer cell growth by an avocado extract: role of lipid-soluble bioactive substances. J. Nutr. Biochem. 2005, 16, 23-30.

[11]. Mechmeche, M.; Kachouri, F.; Ksontini, H.; Hamdi, M. Production of bioactive peptides from tomato seed isolate by Lactobacillus plantarum fermentation and enhancement of antioxidant activity. Food Biotechnol. 2017, 31, 94-113.

[12]. Jayus; Setiawan, D.; Giyarto Physical and chemical characteristics of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus lamk.) seeds flour produced under fermentation process by Lactobacillus plantarum. Agric. Agric. Sci. Procedia 2016, 9, 342-347.

[13]. Folasade, O. A.; Olaide, R. A.; Olufemi, T. A. Antioxidant properties of Persea Americana m. Seed as affected by different extraction solvent. Journal of Advances in Food Science Technology 2016, 3(2), 101-106. (accessed January 1, 2024).

[14]. Nkhata, S. G.; Ayua, E.; Kamau, E. H.; Shingiro, J.-B. Fermentation and germination improve nutritional value of cereals and legumes through activation of endogenous enzymes. Food Sci. Nutr. 2018, 6, 2446-2458.

[15]. Obadina, A. O.; Akinola, O. J.; Shittu, T. A.; Bakare, H. A. Effect of natural fermentation on the chemical and nutritional composition of fermented soymilk Nono. Niger. Food J. 2013, 31, 91-97.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

Dimensions - Altmetric - scite_ - PlumX

Downloads and views


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...
License Terms
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

License Terms


Copyright © 2024 by Authors. This work is published and licensed by Atlanta Publishing House LLC, Atlanta, GA, USA. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial (CC BY NC) (International, v4.0) License ( By accessing the work, you hereby accept the Terms. This is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the CC BY NC License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited without any further permission from Atlanta Publishing House LLC (European Journal of Chemistry). No use, distribution, or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Permissions for commercial use of this work beyond the scope of the License ( are administered by Atlanta Publishing House LLC (European Journal of Chemistry).