Vol 3, No 4 (2012)

December 2012

Table of Contents


Hakan Arslan
DOI 10.5155/eurjchem.3.4.i-i.715
Editorial Board
Hakan Arslan
DOI 10.5155/eurjchem.3.4.ii-vi.716
Graphical Contents

Research Article

Priya Hewavitharanage
DOI 10.5155/eurjchem.3.4.395-398.693

A triphenylcyclopropenium salt paired with hydroxytris(pentafluorophenyl)borate counter ion was synthesized as an initiator for cationic polymerization and its activity was compared with triphenylcyclopropenium hexafluoroantimonate. Triphenylcyclopropenium hydroxytris (pentafluorophenyl)borate exhibits excellent activity as a room temperature thermal initiator for epoxide polymerization under solvent free conditions, due to excellent solubility in epoxy resins.


Süheyla Pura Ergin
DOI 10.5155/eurjchem.3.4.399-403.675

Conductance measurements at five different temperatures varying from 288.15 to 328.15 K were performed for ferrous chloride (FeCl2) and ferric chloride (FeCl3) in 20-80 wt % in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF)-water mixture. To analyze conductivity data, density and viscosity values of the DMF-water mixtures have been determined experimentally at the same temperatures. The conductivity data has been analyzed using the Kraus-Bray and Shedlovsky models. The limiting equivalent conductance values, the association constants (KA), thermodynamic parameters of association (Gibbs energy, enthalpy and entropy changes) for FeCl2 and FeCl3 were calculated and discussed depending on temperature and the composition of solvent mixture.


Leila Lefrada, Ahcene Bouchemma, Mustapha Bouhenguel, Amel Ferhati, Mahmoud Chebbah
DOI 10.5155/eurjchem.3.4.404-405.657

Condensation of n-propyl amine and 4-bromoaniline with formaline in basic solution gives 1,3-bis(4-bromophenyl)-5-(propyl)-1,3,5-triazinane. Structure of the synthesized compound was characterized by FT-IR and 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy.


Mamta Rani, Mohamad Yusuf
DOI 10.5155/eurjchem.3.4.406-410.476

Five new compounds, bis-pyrazoline derivatives (2a-e) with antibacterial properties, built around the alkyl chains of varying lengths were prepared via reaction of various 1-ω-alkoxy-bis-chalcones with N-substituted thiosemicarbazide in ethanolic NaOH solution. The antibacterial activity of these compounds were evaluated by the disk diffusion method against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria and the minimum inhibitory concentration were determined. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, ESI mass spectrometry and their purities were also confirmed by elemental analyses. The formation and stereochemical features of the compounds, 2a-e, are found to be independent of the internal spacer length. The results showed that compounds 2a and 2e are better antibacterial agent compared to Gentamicin and Tetracycline.


Ozlen Altun, Selin Bilcen
DOI 10.5155/eurjchem.3.4.411-415.482

In the present study, synthesis of transition metal complexes of DL-tryptophan with metal precursors such as nickel (II) and cobalt (II) ions in water under refluxing conditions and optimization of the reactions to obtain the composition of complexes in water solutions has been reported. The preparation and structural elucidation of the complexes was undertaken by using physico-chemical, potentiometric titration and spectroscopic methods (UV/Vis, FT-IR and XRD). Comparisons of the spectral measurements of DL-tryptophan with those of the nickel (II) and cobalt (II) complexes are useful in determining the atoms of the ligand that are coordinated to the metal ion. In addition, K (dissociation constant) and ΔG (Gibbs free energy) values were calculated using the Babko and Stanley & Turners methods. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of the complexes were studied screened against bacteria and fungi. The activity data shows that and cobalt complexes of DL-tryptophan are more potent than the DL-tryptophan.


Mohammed Jamaluddin Ahmed, Mohammed Khorshed Ali, Muzammel Hossain, Shajahan Siraj, Mohammed Aminul Ahsan
DOI 10.5155/eurjchem.3.4.416-420.645

Air pollution problem is severe in the urban areas caused by both mobile as well as stationary sources. Mainly the two-stroke and diesel-run vehicles cause the severity of the problem by emitting highly contaminated exhausts. Considering severity of the problem, current study was undertaken to measure the air pollutants level in air of Chittagong city, Bangladesh. The heavy metals Zn, Pb, Mn, Cd, Cu and Co in suspended particulate matter (SPM) were determined at different locations of Chittagong city. The sampling locations were selected to reflect different influences from industrial and mobile sources in the highly populated center part of Chittagong city. Samplings were done during October and November 2008 from different areas of the metropolitan city of Chittagong city (Newmarket, Bahaddarhat, Nasirabad, General Electric Company (G.E.C.) Circle and Director’s Office of Department of Environment, Bangladesh). High volume sampler was used for the determination of SPM and the different metal concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The average results of particulate matters and trace metals have been compared to national and international standards. The value of SPM in air of Chittagong city is higher than that of Threshold Limit Value (TLV) recommended by World Health Organization (WHO), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), USA and Department of Environment (DoE), Bangladesh. The metal concentrations of ambient air collected at different locations in Chittagong city is exceeded the threshold limit values and as a result the air of Chittagong city is considered polluted. Therefore, it is suggested that Government of Bangladesh should take proper steps to control the air pollution of Chittagong city.


Ramzia Ismail El-Bagary, Ehab Farouk Elkady, Marwa Hosny Tammam, Ayman Abo Elmaaty
DOI 10.5155/eurjchem.3.4.421-425.667

Two simple, rapid and precise reversed phase liquid chromatographic methods have been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of miconazole nitrate in two binary mixtures, with hydrocortisone acetate (Mixture 1) and mometasone furoate (Mixture 2). For the two mixtures, chromatographic separation was carried out on a C18 column. For mixture 1, a mobile phase consisting of 2.22 mM sodium dihydrogen phosphate (Triethylamine 0.2%):acetonitrile (45:55, v:v) at a flow rate of 0.9 mL/min was used at ambient temperature. Quantitative determination of miconazole and hydrocortisone was achieved with UV detection at 215 and 245 nm, respectively. Linearity, accuracy and precision were found to be acceptable over the concentration range of 30-80 μg/mL for miconazole and 4-80 μg/mL for hydrocotisone. For mixture 2, a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile:water (Triethylamine 0.2%) (70:30, v:v) at a flow rate of 0.9 mL/min was used at ambient temperature. Quantitative determinations of miconazole and mometasone were achieved with UV detection at 215 and 250 nm, respectively. Linearity, accuracy and precision were found to be acceptable over the concentration range of 10-200 μg/mL for miconazole and 2-60 μg/mL for mometasone. The optimized methods were proved to be specific, robust and accurate for the quality control of the cited drugs in pharmaceutical preparations.


Shivapura Subbappa Shivakumar, Kikkeri Narasimha Shetty Mohana
DOI 10.5155/eurjchem.3.4.426-432.671

The inhibition performance of extracts of Ziziphus mauritiana on mild steel corrosion in 0.5 M H2SO4 and 0.5 M HCl was investigated using gravimetric, electrochemical polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopic studies. The gravimetric results indicate that Ziziphus mauritiana leaves extract exhibits good inhibition efficiency in both the acids. Furthermore, the inhibition efficiency decreases with increase in temperature. Polarization measurements showed that the studied inhibitor is mixed type in both acids with significant reduction of cathodic and anodic current densities. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements revealed that the charge transfer resistance increases with increase in the concentration of Ziziphus mauritiana extracts. Various thermodynamic parameters such as activation energy, activation enthalpy and activation entropy are evaluated and discussed. Adsorption thermodynamic parameters are also computed, and SEM was used to analyze the surface adsorbed film.


Ghodsi Mohammadi Ziarani, Alireza Badiei, Monireh Shakiba Nahad, Malihe Hassanzadeh
DOI 10.5155/eurjchem.3.4.433-436.673

Propylsulfonic acid functionalized SBA-15 (SBA-Pr-SO3H) catalyzed the synthesis of 2-aryl benzoxazoles from 2-aminophenol and benzoyl chloride derivatives in good yields under reflux condition in acetic acid. In solvent free condition, hydroxybenzanilide derivatives were obtained.


Naglaa Fawzy, Madeha Othman Ibrahim Ghobashy, Ahmed Kamel El-Ziaty
DOI 10.5155/eurjchem.3.4.437-441.677

The oxazolone derivative 1 was synthesized and converted into a hitherto 3,1-benzoxazin-4-one derivative, 3. A series of quinazolin-4-one derivatives 4a-c and 7-11, as well as quinolinone-3-carboxylic acid derivative, 6, and the amide derivatives, 5a,b, were also synthesized via the 3,1-benzoxazin-4-one derivative. The antimicrobial activity of some of the synthesized compounds was examined against three Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans and Bacillus subtilis), five Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis and Acinetobacter baumannii) and one fungi (Candida albicans), using diffusion method. The results showed that compounds 4a, 7, 10 and 11 exhibited significant antibacterial and antifungal activity comparable to standard drugs.


Musa Ozil, Emre Mentese, Bahittin Kahveci
DOI 10.5155/eurjchem.3.4.442-446.691

Some new triazole-3-one compounds have been synthesized and then reduction of carbonyl group in the molecule has been carried out to give a corresponding hydroxyl group which possesses asymmetric carbon atom in good yields, short reaction times and an eco-friendly approach in solvent-free condition by using microwave irradiation.


Sherif Abdel-Naby Abdel-Gawad, Zeinab Abdelaziz Elsherif
DOI 10.5155/eurjchem.3.4.447-454.681

Simple, selective and precise spectrophotometric methods were adopted for simultaneous determination of sitagliptin (SIT) and simvastatin (SIM) in new co-formulated pharmaceutical dosage form. In the first method, SIT was determined by measuring its zero order absorbance at 266.4 nm in the range of 40-360 µg/mL in the presence of up to 70% of SIM. While, the two cited drugs were determined simultaneously using third derivative method by measuring the sum of peak amplitudes (peak & valley) at 275.3-280.3 nm and 240.5-244.7 nm in the ranges of 40-360 µg/mL and 2-18 µg/mL for SIT and SIM, respectively. In the second method, the first derivative of ratio spectra method was applied by measuring the peak height at 255.9 and 275.2 nm using 18 µg/mL SIM as devisor over a concentration range of 40-360 µg/mL of SIT and at 228.3, 240.5 and 248 nm using 100 µg/mL of SIT as divisor over a concentration range 2-18 µg/mL SIM. In the third method the ratio subtraction spectrophotometric method was used, where SIM can be determined by dividing the spectra of the mixtures by the spectrum of SIT (40 µg/mL) followed by subtracting the constant absorbance value of the plateau, then finally multiply the produced spectrum by the spectrum of the devisor. Laboratory prepared mixtures were successfully tried for the three compositions of tablets (10, 20 and 40 mg of SIM) with 100 mg of SIT. The developed methods were validated as per International Conference of Harmonization guidelines.


Anhar Abdel-Aziem, Marwa Sayed El-Gendy, Abdou Osman Abdelhamid
DOI 10.5155/eurjchem.3.4.455-460.683

A new series of pyridotriazolopyrimidines were synthesized via reaction of hydrazonoyl halides with pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were established by elemental analysis, spectral data and alternative synthetic routes whenever possible. Some of synthesized compounds were also screened in vitro for their antimicrobial activity against a variety of bacterial and fungal samples.


Maha Mobaruk Gomaa, Naglaa Salah El-Deen, Nadia Ali El-Kanzi
DOI 10.5155/eurjchem.3.4.461-467.699

New unsymmetrical cyanine-like dyes have been synthesized including monomethine, dimethine, and tetramethine, containing heterocyclic quinone of benzo[g]quinoline derivative. The new synthesized compounds were identified by elemental analysis, IR and 1H NMR. The UV visible absorption spectra of dyes are also reported.


Shehdeh Jodeh
DOI 10.5155/eurjchem.3.4.468-474.706

Pollution of the aquatic environment by human and veterinary waste pharmaceuticals is an increasing area of concern but little is known about their ecotoxicological effects on wildlife. In this study, three pharmaceuticals were selected (ibuprofen, amoxicillin and caffeine) as examples that are released in the environment. All of them are marketed in the Palestinian market (Pharmacies), private clinics and hospitals. The adsorption of the selected pharmaceuticals was examined by batch sorption experiments onto agriculture soil. Pharmaceuticals adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order adsorption model. Adsorption isotherms were best fitted by the Freundlich isotherm model. The “n” parameters were higher than 1 and the Kf values for all of them were less than 1. High removal rates of amoxicillin and ibuprofen were achieved in acidic media (pH = 1-4) and reached more than 88% Except for the caffeine increased at higher pH and reached more than 92%. The thermodynamics parameters showed that the adsorption process on soil was spontaneous and exothermic.


Gaurav Gupta, Ganesh Chaudhari, Preeti Tomar, Yogesh Gaikwad, Rameez Azad, Girish Pandya, Govinda Waghulde, Kesharsingh Patil
DOI 10.5155/eurjchem.3.4.475-479.709

A simple and rapid protocol has been developed for the synthesis of bis(indolyl)methane compounds in excellent yields using molten N-butyl-pyridinium bromide as a solvent and a working catalyst for the reaction. Synthesis of bis(indolyl)methane compounds were accomplished at moderate experimental conditions of temperature and ambient pressure, also involving an electrophilic substitution reaction of indoles with several aromatic aldehydes. The derivatives were confirmed with mass and other usual spectroscopic techniques. A discussion on plausible mechanism for the reaction is also presented.


Shehdeh Jodeh, Halimeh Staiti, Marwan Haddad, Tamara Renno, Abdelnaser Zaid, Nidal Jaradat, Maher Kharoaf
DOI 10.5155/eurjchem.3.4.480-484.698

From an environmental engineering point of view, pharmaceuticals such as antibiotics are a group of man-made chemicals of concern entering the environment in concentrations at which, the health effects are unknown. The problem that may be created by the presence of antibiotics at low concentrations in the environment is the development of antibiotic resistant microorganisms. In this study, three pharmaceutical drugs manufactured in Palestine were studied in waste water and their adsorption in agriculture soil was studied using soil columns. During the study of soil columns, it was noted that the concentration of caffeine in leachate was higher than that of ibuprofen and amoxicillin, as caffeine has higher aqueous solubility. Ibuprofen and amoxicillin were present in leachate with very small concentrations, due to their degradation and decomposition into other substances that may be harmful, and affect the natural properties of soil, groundwater and human health. The decomposition percentages of the pharmaceuticals in the soil columns were 97.82, 97.88 and 86.52% for amoxicillin, ibuprofen and caffeine for one year’s study, respectively. For the fifteen years, the decomposition percentages were 94.04, 96.60 and 93.70% for amoxicillin, ibuprofen and caffeine, respectively.


Humaira Nadeem, Zaman Ashraf
DOI 10.5155/eurjchem.3.4.485-492.655

4-Amino-5-substituted-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiones were prepared by following two different reaction routes and comparing the effectiveness of using different reaction conditions. The coupling of aminotriazoles with acetylated α-bromo-D-glucose furnished protected N-nucleosides regiospecifically. The reagents used gave only one regioisomer N-glycosides not the other S-nucleosides. The protected nucleosides upon deacetylation using methanolic ammonia afforded deprotected products. The chemical structures of synthesized compounds were confirmed by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass spectroscopic and elemental analysis data. All of the synthesized compounds were tested against ten different gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains which exhibited moderate to good antibacterial activity. The deprotected nucleosides portrayed high antibacterial activity than 4-amino-5-substituted-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiones and protected nucleosides against selected bacteria.



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